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3D geometry

Jika rekan – rekan sebelumnya tidak pernah belajar 3D, teknikal drawing atau analisis geometry, disini rekan – rekan akan mulai mempelajarinya, kemampuan yang secara fundamental digunakan untuk Blender dan 3D modeling lainnya.
3D modeling itu berdasar pada geometry cabang dari matematika, analisis geometry, yang mana di ekspresikan dengan menggunakan rumus Aljabar. Rekan – rekan mungkin sudah mempelajarinya disekolah sehingga beberapa terminology berikut akan terasa familiar.

Susah kalau diterjemahin ke bahasa Indonesia.

Coordinates And Coordinate Systems

Look around the room you’re in. The odds are it will have a cuboidal shape, with four vertical walls at right angles to each other, a flat, horizontal floor, and a flat, horizontal ceiling.

Now imagine there’s a fly buzzing around the room. (If there really is a fly buzzing around, feel free to look at it instead of imagining.) The fly is moving in three-dimensional space. In mathematical terms, what that means is that, at any moment, its position within the room can be expressed in terms of a unique combination of three numbers.

Now, there are an infinite number of ways—coordinate systems—in which we could come up with a convention for defining and measuring these numbers—the coordinates. And each convention will give different values for the numbers, even if the fly is in the same position—coordinates only make sense with reference to a specific coordinate system! To narrow down the possibilities (in a purely arbitrary fashion, of course), let us label the walls of the room with the points of the compass: in a clockwise direction, North, East, South and West. (If you know which way is really north, feel free to use that to label the walls of your room; otherwise, choose any wall you like as north.)

Consider the south-west corner of your room, the point at floor level. We will call this (arbitrary) point the origin of our coordinate system, and the three numbers at this point will be (0,0,0). The first of the three numbers will be the distance (in some suitable units, let’s say metres) eastwards from the west wall, the second number will be the distance northwards from the south wall, and the third number will be the height above the floor.

Each of these directions is called an axis (plural: axes), and they are conventionally labelled X, Y and Z, in that order. With a little bit of thought, you should be able to convince yourself that every point within the space of your room corresponds to exactly one set of ( X, Y, Z ) values. And conversely that every possible combination of ( X, Y, Z )values, with 0 ≤ X ≤ W, 0 ≤ Y ≤ L and 0 ≤ Z ≤ H (where W is the east-west dimension of your room, L is its north-south dimension, and H is the height between ceiling and floor) corresponds to a point in the room.

The following diagram illustrates how the coordinates are built up, using the same colour codes that Blender uses to label its axes: red for X, green for Y and blue for Z (an easy way to remember this if you're familiar with RGB is the order -- Red X, Green Y, Blue Z). In the second picture, the value for x defines a plane parallel to the west wall of the room; in the third picture, the value for y defines a plane parallel to the south wall; and in the fourth picture, the value for z defines a plane parallel to the floor. Put the planes together in the fifth picture, and they intersect at a unique point.

This style of coordinate system, with the numbers corresponding to distances along perpendicular axes, is called Cartesian coordinates, named after René Descartes, the 17th-century mathematician who first introduced the concept. Legend has it that he came up with the idea after watching a fly buzzing around his bedroom!

There are other ways to define coordinate systems, for example by substituting direction angles in place of one or two of the distance measurements. These can be useful in certain situations, but usually all coordinate systems in Blender are Cartesian. However, switching between these coordinate systems is simple and easy to do in Blender.

Negative Coordinates

Can coordinate values be negative? Depending on the situation, yes. Here we are only considering points within our room. But supposing, instead of placing our origin in the bottom southwest corner, we put it in the middle of the room, halfway between the floor and ceiling. (After all, it is an arbitrary point, we can place it wherever we would like to, just as long as we all agree on where it is.) Now, remember that our X-coordinate is the distance east from the origin; How do we express the fact that a point lies west of the origin? Simple: We give it a negative X-coordinate. Similarly, points north of the origin have a positive Y-coordinate, while those south of it get a negative Y-coordinate; and those points above the origin get a positive Z-coordinate, while those below it get a negative Z-coordinate.

Handedness Of Coordinate Systems

It is conventional for most Cartesian coordinate systems to be right-handed. To see what this means, hold the thumb, index finger and middle finger of your right hand perpendicular to each other:

Figure 1: The three axes form a right-handed system
Now you can orient your hand so that the thumb points along the X-axis in the positive direction (direction of increasing coordinate numbers), the index finger along the positive Y-axis, and the middle finger along the positive Z-axis. Another way of looking at it is, if you placed your eye at the origin, and you could see the three arrows pointing in the directions of positive X, positive Y and positive Z as in Figure 1, the order X, Y, Z would go clockwise.

Axes Of Rotation

Consider a spinning ball. Every point on it is moving, except the ones right in the middle: these form a line of stillness around which the rest of the ball spins. This line is called the axis of rotation.

More precisely, the axis of rotation of a rotating object over a period of time is a point or a line connecting points that do not change position while that object rotates, drawn when the observer assumes he/she does not change position relative to that object over time.

Figure 2: Another view of right-handed system
Yet another way to understand this is to make a fist with your right hand, with the fingers bent towards you. Stick out your thumb directly to the right(X). Now aim pointer finger straight up(Y). Finally make your middle finger pointing towards yourself(Z). This is looking down from above directly on top of origin.

Conventionally, the direction of the axis of rotation is such that, if you place your eye looking in that direction, the rotation appears clockwise, as illustrated below, where the yellow arrow shows the rotational movement, while the purple one shows the rotation axis:

To remember this convention, hold your right hand in a thumbs-up gesture :
If the rotation follows the direction of the curled-up fingers, then the direction of the axis of rotation is considered to be the same as the direction which the thumb is pointing in.

This gesture is a different form of the right-hand rule and is sometimes called the right-hand grip rule, the corkscrew-rule or the right-hand thumb rule. From now on in this book, it will be referred to as 'the right-hand grip rule'.

When describing the direction of a rotating object, do not say that it rotates left-to-right/clockwise, or right-to-left/counterclockwise. Each of these claims on their own are useless, because they're relative to the observer. Instead of saying this, find the direction of the axis of rotation and draw an arrow to represent it. Then people who know the right-hand grip rule will be able to figure out what the direction of rotation of the object is, by using the rule when interpreting your drawing.

Additional Resources

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ICAN Education Consultant, Konsultan pendidikan luar negeri

logo Ican education Consultant

ICAN Education Consultant adalah konsultan atau agen pendidikan luar negeri yang berbasis di Jakarta dan Tangerang. Dijalankan oleh tim konsultan yang handal dalam memberikan pelayanan kepada pelajar Indonesia untuk rencana studi di luar negeri. Tim konsultan pendidikan luar negeri kami mendengar kebutuhan para pelajar, menganalisa situasi dan memberikan saran – saran terbaik sehingga pelajar mendapatkan keyakinan dalam mengambil keputusan.

Mengapa memilih ICAN sebagai Konsultan pendidikan luar Negeri

  1. Karena ICAN memberikan informasi akurat dan cepat mengenai pendidikan keluar negeri. Adapun beberapa Negara yang menjadi tujuan Sekolah di luar Negeri dari ICAN Education Consultant ini adalah Malaysia, Singapore, Inggris (UK), New Zealand, Australia, Kanada, Swiss, Amerika Serikat, Indonesia, Italia dan Negara – Negara tersebut merupakan langganan dari ICAN dan tidak menutup kemungkinan akan menambah Negara baru dalam list mereka.
  2. Karena ICAN, memonitor perkembangan murid – murid dengan memberikan tes – tes secara rutin sehingga dapat memaksimalkan hasil pembelajaran murid – murid.
  3. Karena ICAN, memberikan solusi terbaik sesuai keadaan dan kondisi murid dikarenakan setiap murid pasti selalu ada suatu masalah dalam kegiatan belajarnya, dengan solusi terbaik tersebut para murid dapat mengatasi masalah mereka dengan tuntas.
  4. ICAN Education Consultant menerapkan post-follow up dimana mereka akan terus berhubungan dengan murid walaupun murid tersebut telah berangkat dan memulai kuliah di Negara yang dituju. Ini dikarenakan supaya ICAN bisa selalu dekat dengan murid dan bisa membantu pada saat dibutuhkan.
  5. Konsultan-konsultan ICAN Education Consultant telah melewati serangkaian training dan pelatihan dari insititusi dan universitas serta dari kedutaan Negara-negara yang kami wakilkan.

    Visi & Misi ICAN Education Consultant

    1. Selalu menjadi agen pendidikan (education agent) yang memberikan pelayanan terbaik sesuai dengan kebutuhan pelajar Indonesia untuk Kuliah di luar Negeri.
    2. Memberikan konsultasi pendidikan yang akurat, cepat dan terpercaya dalam membantu proses studi keluar negeri.
    3. Menjadi agen pendidikan (education agent) yang setia dalam merencanakan pendidikan ke luar negeri.
    4. Menjadi agen pendidikan (Education Agent) di Indonesia yang terdepan dalam memberikan informasi dan pelayanan untuk studi ke luar negeri (overseas study).

    Study ke luar negeri semakin mudah dengan ICAN Education Consultant.
    1. Konsultasi gratis
    2. ICAN Education Consultant memiliki konselor yang professional dan sangat berpengalaman dalam memberikan layanan konsultasi gratis seputar informasi pendidikan ke universitas luar negeri, mulai dari pencarian jurusan yang tepat untuk universitas, pemilihan universitas, informasi biaya pendidikan dan semua hal yang menyangkut universitas di luar negeri.
    3. Pendaftaran sekolah dan kuliah diluar negeri
    4. Sebagai agen konsultan pendidikan kuliah dan studi ke luar negeri yang terpercaya di Indonesia, kami melayani semua pengurusan pelajar dalam proses studi ke luar negeri. Salah satunya kami membantu para pelajar dalam pendaftaran sekolah dan kuliah ke universitas di luar negeri yang dituju, kami juga melakukan semua pengurusan berkas studi Anda, mulai dari formulir pendaftaran, berkas pengajuan visa dll. Paling penting adalah kami tidak akan meminta bayaran kepada Anda atas layanan ini (GRATIS), kami bahkan bisa memastikan bahwa harga yang Anda bayarkan ke sekolah/ universitas sama dengan atau bahkan lebih terjangkau.
    5. Akomodasi saat diluar negeri
    6. ICAN Education Consultant sebagai agen konsultan pendidikan kuliah dan studi ke luar negeri yang berlokasi di Indonesia menyediakan informasi serta membantu Anda dalam pengurusan akomodasi atau tempat tinggal saat melakukan kuliah dan studi di luar negeri, karena akomodasi merupakan salah satu bagian penting saat rekan - rekan kuliah di luar negeri. Menikmati kehidupan di luar sekolah tentunya dapat membantu Anda untuk belajar lebih efektif di dalam kelas. Semua pilihan akomodasi kami di seluruh dunia dirancang untuk memberikan Anda kesempatan dalam berinteraksi dengan para warga lokal dan siswa internasional lainnya serta memberikan Anda kesempatan untuk melatih bahasa inggris dan mengalami kehidupan budaya setempat di tempat belajar yang Anda pilih.
    7. Travel Arrangement
    8. ICAN Education Consultant sebagai agen konsultan pendidikan kuliah dan studi ke luar negeri juga membantu dalam proses keberangkatan pelajar untuk kuliah dan sekolah ke luar negeri (Travel Arrangement Overseas Study). Selain itu ICAN Education Consultant juga dapat membantu Anda semua dalam memberikan pelayanan informasi yang rekomendasi mengenai hotel atau memberikan informasi mengenai akomodasi yang kira-kira sesuai dengan keinginan dan budget Anda dan sebagainya yang kira-kira masih dalam lingkup diatas.
    9. Airport Pickup
    10. Sebagai bentuk rasa terima kasih, ICAN Education Consultant sebagai agen konsultan pendidikan kuliah dan studi ke luar negeri menyediakan pilihan untuk penjemputan di airport pada saat Anda sampai di negara tujuan dalam pengurusan studi ke luar negeri, Cara tersebut memudahkan siswa yang khususnya berpergian sendiri untuk pertama kalinya.
    11. Briefing sebelum berangkat
    12. ICAN Education Consultant sebagai agen konsultan pendidikan kuliah dan studi ke luar negeri akan selalu memberikan Briefing sebelum keberangkatan ke universitas yang dituju di luar negeri seperti pembekalan dan pengarahan informasi agar pada saat perjalanannya memiliki bayangan tentang negara tujuan. Hal ini merupakan sebagai pelayanan kami bagi pelajar yang akan berangkat studi di luar negeri.

    Baru - baru ini ICAN Education Consultant mengadakan info session day dengan judul "Kuliah dan Studi di Australia Lebih Hemat dan Terjangkau" yang mana menghadirkan perwakilan langsung dari Universitas di Australia yang berbicara seputar kuliah di Australia.

    Tidak hanya Universitas di Australia saja, ICAN telah membantu pelajar indonesia untuk kuliah di Malaysia, kuliah di Singapura, kuliah di New Zealand, kuliah di Inggris(UK), kuliah di Amerika(USA), kuliah di Kanada, kuliah di Swiss, dan kuliah di Italia.
    Silahkan hubungi konselor profesional kami untuk pengurusan studi Anda di luar negeri:


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    dengan keyword : ICAN Education Consultant, Konsultan Pendidikan Luar Negeri, Sekolah di Luar Negeri, Kuliah di Luar Negeri, Universitas di Luar Negeri, Studi ke Luar Negeri

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    International Language Center yang Berkualitas, Terjamin, Terpercaya di Indonesia

    International Language Center adalah sebuah yayasan pendidikan yang berfokus pada pengajaran dua belas bahasa asing. Berdiri pada bulan Desember tahun 2013, yayasan ini memiliki visi meningkatkan sumber daya manusia melalui penguasaan bahasa asing. Mengapa ? karena kemampuan berbahasa asing sangat dibutuhkan oleh semua orang yang akan menambah value orang tersebut dalam segala bidang seperti Pendidikan, Pekerjaan, Pergaulan dan lain sebagainya.

    Kenapa memilih belajar bahasa di International Language Center ?

    • International Language Center Berkualitas
    • International Language Center Berkualitas, Karena ILC mempunyai guru yang berpengalaman, profesional dan bersertifikat yang dapat mengajarkan ilmu yang mereka miliki kepada muridnya. Bukan hanya gurunya saja yang memiliki profesionalitas dan kualitas, metode yang digunakan adalah berbasis Fun Learning Method yang mana murid - murid akan selalu aktif di class session dan belajar dengan cara yang menyenangkan sehingga dapat membangun rasa percaya diri murid - murid.

    • International Language Center Terjamin
    • International Language Center Terjamin, di ILC yang mengatur jam belajar adalah murid - muridnya sehingga bisa lebih flexible dan tidak terikat oleh waktu karena di ILC tidak hanya ada memiliki kelas anak - anak tapi ada juga kelas Dewasa dan korporate dengan begitu untuk mereka yang sibuk bekerja bisa menyesuaikan jam belajar mereka di ILC dengan jadwal mereka bekerja. Di ILC para murid juga disediakan E-Learning Studio yang dilengkapi dengan teknologi edukasi elektronik yang dapat membantu para murid untuk belajar. Tidak hanya itu terdapat juga sebuah perpustakaan yang berisi berbagai macam koleksi buku yang dapat dijadikan para murid sebagai referensi belajar mereka.

    • International Language Center Terpercaya
    • International Language Center Terpercaya, ILC mempunyai Social Corner & Lounge sebuah yang tersebar di beberapa daerah diantara lain :
      POINS SQUARE 5th FLOOR - Jl. R.A Kartini, Lebak Bulus, Jakarta Selatan – Telp.(021)7599-9772.
      MALL CIPUTRA 5th FLOOR - Jl.Arteri S.Parman, Grogol Jakarta Barat – Telp.(021)566-9723.
      LIPPO MALL PURI @ST.MORITZ - Jl. Puri Indah Boulevard Blok U1 Jakarta Barat – Telp.(021)2911-1183.
      GRAND METROPOLITAN MALL BEKASI 4th FLOOR - Jl. K.H. Noer Alie, Bekasi Selatan – Telp.(021)2946-4683.
      SUPERMALL KARAWACI WEST BASEMENT - Jl. Boulevard Diponegoro, Tangerang – Telp.(021)546-6313.
      MALL OF INDONESIA 2nd FLOOR - Jl. Raya Boulevard Barat No.1 Kelapa Gading, Jakarta Utara 14240 – Telp.(021)2936-4807.
      LA PIAZZA 3rd FLOOR - Jl. Boulevard Kelapa Gading blok M, Jakarta Utara 14240 – Telp.(021)4586-4988.
      SUPERMALL PAKUWON - The Terrace 20 – 21 Jl. Puncak Indah Lontar No.2, Surabaya – Indonesia - (031)739-0022.

      tidak hanya memiliki Social Corner & Lounge, ILC juga memiliki One On One class yang mana didesain untuk mereka yang ingin lebih fokus dan private dalam belajar.

    • International Language Center Pendidikan Bahasa
    • International Language Center Pendidikan Bahasa, terdapat sebanyak dua belas bahasa yang bisa rekan - rekan pelajari dari ILC ini yaitu INGGRIS, MANDARIN, JEPANG, KOREA, BELANDA, PERANCIS, JERMAN, ITALI, SPANYOL, RUSIA, ARAB dan tentu saja INDONESIA.

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    International Language Center yang Berkualitas, Terjamin, Terpercaya di Indonesia
    Periode 28 September 2015 sampai dengan 28 Desember 2015
    pengumuman pemenang akan dikabarkan peserta pada 4 January 2016 sedangkan penyerahan Hadiah tanggal 11 January 2016

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    Apa yang bisa dilakukan Blender

    Blender adalah software gratis untuk membuat 3D grafik (juga dinamakan sebagai computer graphic atau CG ) termasuk juga gambar, games dan video.
    Walaupun hasil akhir kebanyakan project dari Blender ini adalah 2D gambar Raster pada permukaan datar(monitor, movie screen, atau kertas). Gambar tersebut dikatakan 3D karena mereka menunjukan illusion of depth(ilusi kedalaman) dengan kata lain, seseorang melihat gambar tersebut dapat membedakan bagian mana yang terlihat dekat dan bagian mana yang terlihat jauh.

    Berikut ini adalah gambar yang Nampak realistic yang dibuat dengan blender.

    "A Lonely House", by Mayqel

    Lihat dan amati bangunan tersebut.
    • Karena dikaburkan dengan bangunan, rekan – rekan dapat memahami bahwa pohon – pohon bukit yang berjajar itu berada di belakang bangunan.
    • Rekan – rekan dapat menafsirkan bagian gelap dari tembok itu sebagai bayangan, sehingga rekan – rekan dapat mengestimasikan datangnya cahaya, meskipun tidak terlihat adanya matahari pada gambar tersebut.
    Ilusi kedalaman dapat dihasilkan dengan tangan menggunakan 2D software editing( atau paintbrush), Blender menyediakan tool yang dapat memudahkan pembuatannya.
    Seperti lonely house itu tidak pernah ada diluar pikiran authornya. Melainkan sebuah bangunan yang berada di daerah pedesaan di Jerman. Menunggu pencahayaan yang tepat, dan memfotonya, sang author membuat scene itu di dunia 3D virtual yang terdapat dikomputer. Dia kemudian menggunakan Blender untuk merender gambar scene tersebut(mengkonvertnya menjadi gambar 2D). Rekan – rekan masih dapat melihat apa saja yang dapat dilakukan Blender di Blender Gallery :

    Step dalam pembuatan gambar 3D
    Untuk menghasilkan gambar seperti diatas itu melibatkan 2 step utama yaitu :
    • Modeling, yang mana adalah proses pembutan dunia 3D rekan – rekan, juga dinamakan sebagai model atau scene. Hal ini melibatkan pendefinisian geometry dari object, membuatnya terlihat seperti object itu terbuat dari material tertentu, menyeting pencahayaan dan menentukan sudut pandang kamera.
    • Rendering, adalah proses sesungguhnya yang mana gambar di generate dari sudut pandang kamera untuk dinikmati audience rekan – rekan.

    3D sering juga digunakan tidak hanya untuk gambar yang diam namun juga untuk animasi. Hal ini membutuhkan beberapa step tambahan :
    • Rigging, menyeting rig, deforming(mengubah bentuk object ) sebuah karakter menjadi berbagai pengulangan untuk meyakinkan bahwa karakter itu bergerak, mempunyai ekspresi wajah, atau action lainnya dari kehidupan nyata manusia atau hewan.
    • Posing, mengkoreografikan posisi dari object dan bagian – bagian mereka dalam pengulangan scene 3D, menggunakan animasi rig yang sebelumnya telah dibuat.
    • Rendering, adalah proses pembuatan sequence dari frame yang mewakili gerakan dari waktu ke waktu.
    Tapi itu belum semuanya, masih ada beberapa proses pada proses diatas supaya hasil akhirnya lebih realistic :
    • Sculpting, modeling object kedalam bentuk yang lebih organic, membentuk mereka seperti mereka terbuat dari tanah liat. Proses ini lebih rumit, menyamakan suatu bentuk seperti object sesungguhnya di alam, sebagai object geometri yang simple dan bersih yang hanya ada di dunia matematika.
    • Texture painting, rekan – rekan mungkin familiar dengan program yang mana dapat menggambar gambar 2D pada canvas digital. Program seperti itu biasanya digunakan dalam proses pembuatan 3D, untuk membuat textures yang “dibungkus” disekitar permukaan object 3D untuk memberikan penampilan yang lebih menarik. 3D program biasanya juga membolehkan painting langsung pada permukaan object tersebut, jadi effect design tersebut dapat langsung di observasi.
    • Physical modeling, mensimulasikan perilaku dari object dunia nyata sebagai contoh : bola yang jatuh, air yang mengalir. Rumus matematika dapat digunakan untuk menghitungnya supaya memberikan hasil yang hampir mirip dengan object nyata tersebut.
    • Motion capture atau mocap , memproduksi animasi, seperti manusia yang sedang berjalan, berlari , berdansa dan lain sebagainya yang cukup sulit. Karena tekniknya menggunakan actor sungguhan dengan memfilmkan mereka menggunakan penanda special yang dipasang di titik strategis di tubuh mereka, dan melakukan proses computer untuk mentrack pergerakan penanda tersebut dan mengkonvertnya menjadi animasi rig.
    • Compositing, adalah saat 3D render di gabungkan dengan photografik sungguhan/ jejak live action, untuk membuat object yang di render tersebut berada di tengah real-world scene atau sebaliknya, actor sungguhan berada di tengah scene yang di render. Jika dikerjakan dengan skill yang bagus, audience akan cukup kesulitan untuk membedakan mana yang asli dan yang gambar.
    Dan tambahan beberapa hal yang rumit lainnya ,Ada dua macam rendering :
    • Real – time rendering adalah rendering yang harus terjadi pada suatu waktu, khususnya untuk aplikasi seperti video game. Kebanyakan gamer sekarang mengira bahwa screen mereka harus di update supaya mereka mendapatkan fps 60 untuk render yang lebih smooth dan merespon aksi player.
    • Non real time rendering waktu tidak menjadi kendala, dan kualitas menjadi factor utama. Sebagai contoh ketika memproduksi satu frame. Tidak menjadi sebuah masalah jika membutuhkan waktu satu menit atau satu jam, karena keindahan dan kedetailan dari gambar akhir sangat berharga, ketika merender sebuah movie kualitas Hollywood, mungkin masih membutuhkan waktu beberapa jam per frame, tapi menggunaan renderfarm dari ratusan atau ribuan mesin, semua bekerja pada frame yang berbeda pada waktu yang sama, sehingga dapat menyelesaikan semua sequence dalam beberapa minggu.

    Masih ada lagi, mungkin ada beberapa area yang mana dianggap berada diluar step pembuatan 3D tradisional, yang blender sediakan
    • Video editing, setelah merender animasi sequence rekan – rekan dan merekam jejak live action, rekan – rekan ingin menggabungkan mereka diwaktu yang tepat untuk memberitahukan story yang jelas.
    • 3D printing, ya… meskipun masih terlalu dini, sudah banyak orang yang bereksperiment dengan membuat object menggunakan 3D printer. Data bentuknya didapat dari object sungguhan dengan 3D scanning, atau mungkin dibuat dari awal menggunakan 3D modeling, atau bahkan rekan – rekan dapat menggabungkan kedua proses tersebut.
    Blender adalah tool yang berguna untuk setiap proses tersebut, dan masih banyak lagi yang lainnya

    Sumber :

    Sumber lainnya yang tercantum didalam sana adalah
    3D rendering di Wikipedia
    Comparison of 3D computer graphics software di Wikipedia
    Computer generated di Wikipedia
    Depth perception di Wikipedia
    Blender art gallery
    Blender homepage

    I Wanna be a Game Designer [part 5]

    Stuff to Read
    Read A LOT. You should read as much as you can, about games and about every other interest you could have. As said, reading is really important for this job. First of all, here are some good articles to get started.
    And then, you may find really useful these books.

    Which Games Should I Play?
    As a rule of thumb, you should play A LOT. Play everything you can, try as much things as you can and go deep on few of those. Don’t limit your gameplay to blockbuster games, though. Try to find the hidden gems. Use a lot Kongregate, take advantage of the deals in Steam, buy Humble Indie Bundles. Play board games as well.

    Just remember. Try to play critically. Always dissect the games you play, try to understand how they work, deconstruct them. A good way to do this is to look for game postmortems on the Internet. Postmortems are documents that tell you how a game was made, why some decisions were taken, which problems the developers encountered. These are extremely useful for you.

    Stay Up To Date
    These are websites dealing with game design, development and gaming in general you should read every day (well, almost).

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    I Wanna be a Game Designer [part 4]

    Finding a Job

    So, let’s say you’ve done everything. You have studied a lot, you have even made two or three small games, you have several working prototypes, a good website and stuff. Now you want to get a job in game development. Maybe you’re looking at the super shiny big industry. How can you get a job there?

    Well, let’s start by saying that, right now, staying in Italy won't get you into the big industry. All the most important companies are located abroad (currently Canada, USA, UK and Japan are leading the way, but northern Europe is catching up), so you must be ready to move. If you are, before you can even think about getting started and sending out job applications and CVs, there are some things you should know.

    First of all, getting a job as a game designer is extremely hard. Traditionally game designers are former testers, programmers or artists that change their job profile while working in the industry. Even with a good portfolio it’s still quite difficult to land a first job directly as a game designer. If you look at the listings for game design positions, you’ll often notice how a several years experience plus a certain number of delivered titles in the industry are required. Why is it so? Because the game designer must demonstrate to be able to effectively complete a game. A good game.

    So, what to do? Well, if you really want a job in the big industry, there’s no harm in trying to show your prototypes and your small games. Although difficult, landing a junior position is possible if you can show people that you know how to work. Plus, in social and casual game companies being selected could be a little easier. Or, you can look out for testers positions.

    Being a tester is often the first step for a designer. By testing games you could see how the company works and learn some useful stuff. Unfortunately testing could be a tedious and very consuming activity (but game design is not less consuming, to tell the truth). And you shouldn’t stop making games in your free time.

    What If I Cannot Find a Job?

    Well, that’s tough. Sometimes you just won’t be able to do it. Finding a job in game design is often very very hard. Fortunately, if you have worked well, there are a lot of jobs you can still do. For example:

    UX Designer/Interaction designer: a game designer is a very specialised interaction designer. And if you have made some games, you should have gathered a good experience in User Interface design. With a good portfolio, it shouldn’t be that hard to find a job in these areas.
    Flash Developer: it’s possible that in your prototyping sessions you have used Flash more than a time. Probably some of your games are flash-based, so, why not trying to use this experience to your advantage?
    Still a game designer: well, yeah. Sometimes for people being a game designer means being a video game designer. But the world of games is bigger and more various than you can imagine. If being a board game designer could be as difficult as making video games, you can try exploring playful installations, urban games and interactive narratives. These are all crossmedia forms of games fascinating to explore. For a first glance, check out the works of Hubbub, Monobanda and Six to Start.

    Going Indie

    You can also choose to avoid looking for a job both in the traditional industry and in another company: you can try to be independent. This could be really difficult and you are probably going to have a hard time earning enough money until you can make a successful product. But more and more people are trying this path, and the chances to make it alone (or, better, with a small team) are higher than just five years ago.

    Going indie, on the other hand, means that you’ll often have to wear several hats to get things done. You probably will have to code something, to do some basic art, and so on. Please, don’t think you can go in forums and communities asking for help based on the fact that you have a great idea. As said, ideas are a dozen a dime. And all the people hanging out in indie communities are probably still involved with their great project. So, there’s just one thing you can do: start doing your own game with what you have and show it to other peers: they will get a better chance to evaluate and it will be more likely to get someone involved.

    When your game is at an alpha state, you can start thinking about signing it for some indie competitions such as Independent Games Festival which is held inside the Game Developer Conference in San Francisco, IndieCade which is one of the most important showcases of experimental and innovative games and Fantastic Arcade. This competition are all located in the United States; in Europe you can check out A MAZE, which is held in Berlin.

    Whether or not your game is selected for one of these events, you’ll still need to effectively sell your game. To do so, you should keep in mind that being an indie means that all the work to market the game will be your responsibility. Being in the loop and getting known is obviously the first step to market your game, but it’s just the start. You should keep contacts with journalists in order to have them speak about the game. You’ll have to be creative and find ways to make people speak about it. And you should start pretty soon: having people follow the development of the game since the early stages (not too early: be sure to have something good to show!) can make them more involved and greatly enhance the buzz around it.

    Then, you have to choose the right marketplace. If you are making a mobile game, there’s not a lot to do. Just publish the game in the relative app store and start fighting your battle to be noticed. But if the title is multiplatform, you should choose where to publish it. Obviously, you can try to sell the game directly, maybe using PayPal, or you can upload it on a free marketplace like Indievania. Other marketplaces like Steam for PC and Mac or Xbox Live Arcade for Xbox have to select your game before offering you a contract to sell it on their spaces. The same goes for interesting new models like the Humble Indie Bundle which periodically offer a batch of selected games in a pay what you want fashion.

    Quite recently Steam opened to the public Greenlight, a platform where you can show your game to the community and, if it gets enough positive votes, it can be chosen to be included in Steam.

    Remember, being indie could be difficult, but you will be free to experiment and try more original stuff. That’s why a lot of developer choose the indie way. If you want to, do yourself a favor and watch Indie Game: The Movie; it shows quite well what the life of an indie game developer can be.

    CREDIT :

    I Wanna be a Game Designer [part 3]

    Where Do I Start?
    If you want to design games, you should start designing games. You can design games with a deck of cards. With index cards. And a pen, don’t forget a pen. You can do it with some poker chips, with some Lego bricks, with an old chess board. Your first lesson is: “games are not their graphics”. Or their framerate. They are their rules. You can start making games with whatever you have to hand. Raph Koster

    That’s pretty much it, really. Raph Koster nailed it. If you want to design games, you should immediately start by making games. Making games is NOT writing concepts. Making games means to take your concept and bring it to a finished status. If you still don’t know how to code (mind you: you should learn), just put it on paper, as Koster says. There’s plenty of shops selling wooden game bits and dice and other stuff you can use to start making games (and if you can’t get some of those you can just look into your dust-covered tabletop games.

    A game designer should always be making games. Plus, your first ten games will probably suck (it’s not your fault), so it’s better to get them out of the way as soon as possible.

    How Can I Make My First Game?
    There are a lot of ways to do it. If you can’t code, you can just start on paper. Creating a board game will teach you a lot, and you won’t need a lot of stuff to start (but if you do, head to Spielmaterial to get some nice game bits). Creating a board game is a great way to start designing games. There’s always time to get digital.

    If you still want to use your computer screen, though, you can start with semi-visual tools like Game Maker or Stencyl. They are both pretty good to learn the basics about how a game works. Sure, they are pretty limited (especially Stencyl), but right now you have to learn how to make small, fun games. Leave the complexity for later, when you will have gathered enough experience.

    If you are more into 3D games, Unity 3D is a popular choice. It’s quite simple to learn and there is a huge community to call upon if you’ll need help.

    Please note that these are just mere suggestions: there is a huge amount of tools and engines dedicated to create games and the landscape is ever changing. Use what you feel comfortable with. Remember: this is your first game, so, don’t bite more than you can chew. Stick to something very very simple. You aim to finish a game. It won’t be a masterpiece (it will probably suck) but you’ll learn a great deal of things in the process.

    If you need to stay simple and be motivated, you may check the Tiny Game Design Tool, which was conceived exactly to maintain your idea simple and to motivate you towards finishing a game.

    How Do I Get Known?
    First of all, start a project. Work hard to make at least a good prototype. Even better: do some small games and start showing them around. Don’t start empty handed.

    Three words for the job: use the Internet.
    No, seriously. The best way you have to get known is to live into the Internet. Follow interesting people on Twitter. Read their blogs. Comment them. Engage in the discussions. Subscribe to the most interesting bulletin boards and start asking and giving advice about what you’re doing.

    And even more important, start building your identity on the web: put a website/blog on; open a Twitter account and start using it at least daily; make mood boards on Pinterest. When you have a definite project start writing about it in a devlog. Release often screenshots, videos and updates. This will help you getting real about it and help you to get known. Show what you’re doing as much as you can. Don’t fear to have your ideas stolen. Remember: ideas are worth nothing until they are realised. The more you talk about yourself and your work, the more help you can get. And you’ll start knowing people who matter and get known by them.

    Then, you can think about going to conferences and events. This is extremely important to meet like-minded people and to get advice from them. You can even make them play your game and see how they react. When you travel, always try to find if there are developers in the area you’re staying. Contact them and try to hang out with them. As for what events are the most relevant to be attended, the first choice should probably be the Game Developer Conference. It is by far the most important event for game developers, and you could get in touch with a lot of very cool people and game developer legends. Now, if you can, I’ll suggest to aim for the central event in San Francisco. But the European instance could still be a great choice to start. If you are overwhelmed by the ticket price, don’t get discouraged. All the GDC instances have a great volunteer program: they will ask you a part-time commitment (you’ll basically have to help people find the right conference room, or to check badges at the entrance) and offer in exchange a full access to the conference. You’ll still have plenty of time to follow conferences and meet people while working there. It’s a refreshing and very cool experience. And don’t forget parties! Traditionally, a lot of parties are thrown during the GDC days. There you can get to know people in a far more relaxed mood, play their games and hang out. You’ll have a lot of fun and you’ll take away a lot of important knowledge.

    Getting known is extremely important. If you choose to go indie and self-publish your game, knowing people will greatly help you spread the word (obviously, you need a good project). If you are looking for a job in some company, having a good presence on the web can greatly help.

    Game Jams
    Game Jams are extremely precious to get started (and to keep yourself motivated!). A Game Jam is an event in which game developers try to complete a game, often following a given theme, in a very short span of time (usually 48 hours), but there are longer jams as well as crazy 2-hours jams). The International Game Developers Association hosts once a year a Global Game Jam, an event organised in several cities throughout the world, taking place in the same weekend. The GGJ is a live event, so it’s a good chance to know people and find someone to work with. Similar jams are held in Sweden (No More Sweden) and in Norway (Nordic Game Jam), so you have plenty of possibilities to attend.

    If you cannot travel, well, there’s no problem at all! You can always attend one of the many online jams held periodically. One of the most important is Ludum Dare, which is held every three months. Another pretty interesting jam is the Experimental Gameplay Project, which runs for an entire week and challenges game developers to try something new and completely different.

    Often the aim of game jams is to give you some time and motivation to explore something new and original. So they are a great way to make games and to hang out with likeminded people. If you want to be a game designer, you should try to attend a jam every time you can, because you’ll learn a lot from them. Try to do a jam as soon as you can. And don’t feel inadequate! And don’t feel inadequate: the first times it will be almost impossible to create and finish something playable, but rest assured the next time you’ll manage! And if you need ideas or just want to know what to expect, you can read The Game Jam Survival Guide. It’s a great book, full of useful advice.

    CREDIT :

    Apa itu Python

    rekan - rekan bisa mendownload bahasa pemrograman python disini

    Python Adalah object oriented programming language, sebuah bahasa pemrograman berbasis OOP seperti Perl, Ruby, Scheme atau Java.
    Fitur dari Python :
    • Mengunakan syntax yang elegan, sehingga membuat program yang rekan – rekan tulis mudah dibaca.
    • Easy-to-use, bahasa pemrograman yang simple sehingga dapat menjadi prototype development yang ideal.
    • Standart library yang besar sehingga support pada pemrograman umum seperti koneksi ke web server, mencari file menggunakan expresi dan membaca dan mengedit file.
    • Python interactive mode yang memudahkan untuk mengetest short snippet dari code. Juga terdapat development environment yang disebut IDLE.
    • Mudah diektensi dengan modul baru mengimplementasikan dengan bahasa C atau C++.
    • Dapat juga di embedded menjadi aplikasi untuk menghasilkan interface yang dapat di program sendiri.
    • Dapat berjalan diberbagai operating system seperti windows, MacOS, linux dll.
    • Dan yang tak kalah penting adalah Free, tidak perlu membayar untuk mendowload atau menggunakan Python karena bahasa pemrograman ini berlicensi opne source.
    Beberapa bahasa pemrograman yang menjadi fitur dari Python adalah
    • Beraneka type data seperti numbers(floating point, comlex, dan unlimited-length long integers), strings ( ASCII dan Unicode ), list dll
    • Python support Object oriented programming dengan class dan lebih dari satu turunan.
    • Code dapat dijadikan sebuah grup modul dan paket.
    • Bahasa ini support dalam raising dan catching exceptions, sehingga lebih mudah dalam menghandle error yang terjadi.
    • Tipe data yang dynamic.
    • Python mempunyai advanced programming feature seperti generators dan lish comprehension.

    rekan - rekan bisa mendownload bahasa pemrograman python disini

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    apa itu Blender

    Blender adalah software yang kompleks dan powerfull dalam urusan 3D modeling dan rendering. Sebelum rekan – rekan dapat menggunakannya secara effektif, rekan – rekan perlu mengetahui beberapa hal tentang cara kerjanya :
    • Proses 3D modeling dan rendering (yang dilakukan Blender)
    • Dasar dari analisa geometry 3D
    • orthographic and perspective view dari object 3D
    • system koordinat local dan anak object
    • pondasi dari blender user interface (hotkeys, windows dan menu)
    • bagaimana cara melihat gambar 3D dari beberapa titik (pada blender)
    pada postingan ini ditujukan sebagai pengetahuan dasar, rekan – rekan tidak akan membuat model blender pertama sampai chapter selanjutnya.

    Blender bukanlah sebuah software yang dapat rekan – reka explorer sampai menemukan jalan bagaimana cara menggunakannya. Tapi, di sini rekan – rekan bukan menjelajahi sebuah kota, lebih dari itu. Rekan – rekan seperti menjelajahi luar angkasa menggunakan sebuah pesawat ulang aling. Jika tidak mengetahui fundamentalnya, maka sebuah keajaiban rekan – rekan bisa sampai di tujuan dengan selamat.

    Hal – hal yang diperlukan
    Rekan – rekan membutuhkan Blender ( bisa di download disini )
    Berdasarkan apa yang terinstal rekan – rekan juga mungkin membutuhkan Python terinstal. Mashing – masing blender hanya bekerja dan cocok dengan satu versi python saja

    Blender Version
    Python Version
    2.5x 3.2

    Mungkin rekan – rekan juga ingin mendownload 2D image editor seperti GIMP, Paint.NET atau Photoshop. Untuk melihat file video rekan – rekan mungkin ingin menginstal VLC media player.

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    I Wanna be a Game Designer [part 2]

    What Should I Know?

    Game design implies a very broad range of knowledge. While everything is ultimately useful, there are some pretty important things you should know in order to be a better designer. Remember, this is not an easy path, but for sure a fascinating and challenging one.

    What Should I Study?

    This is one of the most frequently asked questions about how to become a game designer. The answer is not that simple, though. First of all, does an aspirant game designer need a university degree? I’d answer yes, definitely. But let’s be clear on this matter. A good game designer should have a wide general knowledge, plus some kind of in-depth knowledge about a few topic. This means that even if you didn’t attend a university, in order to do this job you will need to have a personal knowledge at least comparable to the one provided by a university degree.

    Now, which topics are the most important for a game designer? I guess that pretty much everything counts. But if I had to choose, I’d say literature, art, history, maths and media studies could be the most useful topics.

    Then there are the universities offering specific game design tracks. I’ve got mixed feelings about those. While I’m certain that a specific game design competence is almost mandatory, these courses don’t often offer so much more than a good book on the matter. If you want to follow a game design course, I’d suggest to carefully select the ones focusing on guiding you through a complete project. Look at the course portfolio to see what projects came out in the previous years and try to stick only to tracks that put you in charge of actually accomplishing something. Game design is mostly learnt by making games, so, if a course could help you in that quest, it can’t be bad for you.

    Bottom line: you have to study a lot if you want to do this job. You’ll need both to learn game design theory and to improve your general knowledge. Everything will be useful sooner or later. If you lose interest in the world and in all of its marvels, you just can’t be a good game designer.

    Do I Need to Learn How to Code?

    Hell, yes. DON’T RUN AWAY, COME BACK HERE RIGHT NOW. First of all, you don’t need to be a coder. But your work will dramatically improve if you’ll learn at least the basis of a coding language. This is obviously true only if you want to make digital games. But I’m going to assume that yes, sooner or later you’ll be interested in that.

    With a basic coding knowledge you will be able to do more alone, without having to rely on other people: you will be able to write and complete basic prototypes, and be ready to show what’s in your head in a more efficient way.

    Then, you will be better at scripting, and you’ll be able to fine tune the game faster and see immediately the results of your changes. You’ll even be able to understand the code written by others and to propose changes or tweaks in a more rational way.

    Last but not least, you will communicate better with coders, you’ll be able to write documentation in a way that will be more useful and understandable for them. You’ll make their job a lot easier, by describing each game element in a way simpler to be translated into code. And you will be more aware of the limits and the opportunities raised by your design.

    Sure, you won’t have to be able to write the low-level code, but you will be able to put your hands under the hood and make changes to the game on your own. And that’s a really precious skill.

    Do I Need to Learn How to Draw?

    Hell, yes. Wait a minute, why aren’t you running away? Art is something that some game designers just love to ignore. After all, a game is made up of mechanics, and art is just a superstructure, right? It’s the artist’s job, right?


    As much as the hard work in art and asset development is responsibility of the artists, a good game designer should at least be able to sketch or visualise ideas in some way. Remember: Shigeru Miyamoto, possibly one of the greatest designers of all time, started his career as an artist.

    Your job as a game designer, especially if you occupy a lead position, is to have the aesthetic vision of the game: this element is not at all detached from game mechanics, but works in sync with them to generate emotions. That doesn't mean the art director and the lead artists have no word in this matter, but you have to be able to work with them in the most efficient way to get the best possible results.

    So, if you can at least sketch something you will be even better at communicating ideas. And when working in teams, communication is extremely important. Plus, a basic art knowledge will greatly improve the quality of your prototypes.

    Finally, like code knowledge will help you communicate with coders, art knowledge will make your way of working with artists smoother.

    I Wanna be a Game Designer [part 1]

    Why Is This in English?

    Because as a game designer you will need to be able to speak, read and write in English at a pretty good level. English is the main language in the game developer community. All the most important books on game design and game development are written in English. And almost all the people making games and talking about games on websites, Twitter, Facebook and other social networks are writing their thoughts in English.

    So, lesson one. If you can’t understand all this stuff, you simply aren’t ready to become a good game designer. Learn English and then come back here. We have something to tell you.

    What Is a Game Designer?
    Now, if you want to be a game designer, the first thing you need to know is what exactly a game designer does. Apparently, this could be very simple, but, as it frequently turns out, people dreaming about a future in games don’t really get what this means and what is expected from a game designer.

    NOT an Idea Person

    A game designer is a professional specialised in conceiving and delivering games. The job of a game designer doesn’t stop with having a good idea about a game. This is a myth that needs to be debunked. The idea constitutes probably the 1-5% of a game designer’s job. What is really challenging – and what truly defines the job – is all the work the designer does to put the game together, from the early prototype to the final release. The lead game designer is in charge to maintain and direct the general vision of the game.

    Everything Starts with a Concept
    As we have said, the game designer is not just an idea man. Actually ideas are really cheap, and can come from anyone in a game developer team. The game designer’s first task is to translate the first raw idea into a concept document. This document is meant to describe the general idea of the game and to start reasoning about the technology the game will need, the costs and the timespan the development of the game is going to take. The concept document is a first treatment of the game, and it’s just the very first step of a miles-long journey.

    The Game Design Bible (Well, Almost)
    The concept document is sometimes further detailed in into what it’s known as the game bible. This is a massive document detailing every tiny aspect of the game. This should work as a reference for the other team members. Every possible answer to their questions should be addressed here.

    In the last few years, though, the game bible has changed a lot; since a more flexible workflow is preferred, the documentation is written by the designer during the multiple iterations of a first prototype. In this way the game grows in sync with the observation of the team. For more information or ideas about this kind of process, you should read Daniel Cook’s Game Design Logs.

    However, whatever the development process is, the game designer has still the responsibility to keep the documentation updated, and to maintain the documentation and all the game related knowledge base updated.

    Prototypes and Iterations
    Whether a team decides for a more traditional workflow or not, the creation of a prototype is a constant in game development. Often this is a way for the game designer to try out and show the basic game mechanics and to understand the general direction of the game. The first prototypes can often be non-digital and the game designer should be able to build prototypes from scratch in a fast and efficient way. The game idea won’t be real if it’s not prototyped first.

    The very first prototype is usually iterated more and more until the game mechanics work effectively. Here the game designer should direct all the iteration cycles and possibly self-implement new solutions and possibilities by themselves. The prototype iteration can go as long as the entire development cycle.

    Putting It All Together: Scripting
    Scripting is a big part of the game designer’s job. The game designer is usually in charge of using a script language (or a visual editor, or both) to decide character behaviours, to create the levels of the game, and to generally set up the actual runtime gameplay.

    Putting It All Together: Tuning
    Directly connected to scripting is the fine tuning of all the in-game values. How high will the character jump? How fast will the enemy run? How many shots does a gun carry? What is the damage dealt by that particular sword? All these values are often formalised into an excel document, so the game designer can freely change them and run simulations. But ultimately they will be put into the game and fine-tuned at runtime.

    Final Roundup
    So, the job of a game designer includes (but it’s not necessarily limited to) making paper and digital prototypes, writing documentation, deciding the game general mood, cherry picking the game rules and deciding what to ditch, scripting the levels and the characters' behavior, running the game again and again and again fine-tuning every little value, keeping an excel file with all the game values and their relationships and so on. While doing this, a good game designer should always be up to date on the latest games and game design discussion, read a lot, watch movies, play games, constantly expanding their personal culture.
    That’s quite a lot of work, isn’t it? And the game idea is just a tiny part of the job.

    CREDIT :
    Copyright © 2012, Edited By Sagari chan